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Boris Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum, or Eichenbaum Russian: Борис Михайлович Эйхенбаум (October 4./October 16, 1886, Voronezh - November 2, 1959, Leningrad) was a Russian and Soviet literary scholar, and historian of Russian literature. He is a representative of Russian formalism.

The childhood and adolescence of Boris Eikhenbaum were spent in Voronezh. After finishing elementary school in 1905, Eikhenbaum went to Petersburg and enrolled in the Kirov Military Medical Academy, soon thereafter in 1906, he enrolled in the biological faculty of the Free High School of P. F. Lesgaft. In parallel he studied music (violin, piano, voice). In 1907 Eikhenbaum left this school and enrolled in the Musical school of E. P. Raprof and the historical-philological faculty of Saint Petersburg State University.

In 1909, Eikhenbaum abandoned professional aspirations in music, choosing in favor of philology. In this same year after two years of study in the Slavic-Russian department, Eikhenbaum transferred to the Romance-Germanic department, however in 1911, he returned to the Slavic-Russian department. In 1912, Eikhenbaum finished his university studies. From 1913–1914, Eikhenbaum published in a number of periodicals, and conducted reviews of foreign literature in the newspaper «Русская молва». In 1914, Eikhenbaum began his pedagogical activities, and became a teacher in the school of Y. G. Gurevich.

A key moment in the biography of Eikhenbaum was his involvement with other members of the Society for the Study of Poetic Language (OPOJAZ) which was formed in 1916. In 1918, Eikhenbaum joined OPOJAZ and participated in their research until the middle of the 1920s. Eikhenbaum provided definition and interpretation for the group, with essays such as Theory of the "Formal Method" he helped outline their approach to literature. From 1947-1949, Eikhenbaum was victimized by the campaign against "rootless cosmopolitanism," but was able to continue his science. Eikhenbaum died at the age of 73 in Leningrad, now St. Petersburg.